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Trusted domain configuration

Problem statement

When SSSD is joined to a standalone domain, the Administrator can easily configure the settings of the joined domain in sssd.conf. However, when SSSD is joined to a domain that trusts other domain(s), such as IPA-Active Directory trusts or an Active Directory forest with multiple domains, the Administrator can only tweak settings of the joined domain, but not any of the trusted domains.

While we introduced the subdomain_inherit option which works for some use cases, it does not help if the subdomain needs parameters different from the main domain and is not user-friendly.

This design page describes a new feature that allows admins to configure parameters of a trusted domain (a subdomain) in standard SSSD configuration files in similar way as the main domain’s parameters.

Use cases

This section lists two use-cases that were explicitly considered during design.

Use Case 1: Filtering users from a specific OU in a trusted Active Directory domain

As an Administrator, I want to set a different search base for users and groups in a trusted Active Directory domain, to filter out users from an organizational unit that contains only inactive users, so that only active users and groups are visible to the system.

Use Case 2: Pinning SSSD running on IPA server only to selected Active Directory servers and/or sites

As an Administrator, I want to disable autodiscovery of Active Directory servers and sites in the trusted Active Directory domain and instead list servers and/or sites manually, so that I can limit the list of Active Directory DCs that SSSD communicates with and avoid reaching out to servers that are not accessible.

Overview of the solution

A new section in SSSD configuration that corresponds to the trusted domain can be added where the trusted domain options can be set.

This section’s base name will be the same as the main domain section with the /<subdomain name> suffix, where the <subdomain name> part is the trusted domain’s name. To read the available domains, including the autodiscovered trusted ones, run sssctl domain-list. For example if the main domain’s (IPA) name is ipadomain.test and the trusted (Active Directory) domain’s name is addomain.test, then the configuration sections will look like this:

[domain/ipadomain.test]
# this is the main domain section

[domain/ipadomain.test/addomain.test]
# this is the trusted domain section

Note that not all options available for the main domain will also be available in the new subdomain section. Here are some options that will be supported in upstream version 1.15:

  • ldap_search_base
  • ldap_user_search_base
  • ldap_group_search_base
  • ad_server
  • ad_backup_server
  • ad_site
  • use_fully_qualified_names

Other options might be added later as appropriate. Upstream already plans on making it possible to add the options previously settable with subdomain_inherit with ticket 3337.

Implementation details

In the first iteration, the subdomain initialization code will read the options directly from the subdomain section, if set.

As an additional improvement, the dp_options structure will be expanded with a boolean flag that signifies whether the option is overridable or not so the code can be made a bit more generic. This work is tracked separately with ticket 3336.

How To Test

This section lists several test cases that are important for users of this feature.

Test the LDAP search base configuration

Testing this feature differs when SSSD is directly joined to an Active Directory domain and when SSSD is running on an IPA client joined to an IPA domain with trust relationship to an Active Directory domain. When SSSD is joined directly, the subdomain configuration must be applied on all clients. In an IPA-AD trust setup, the changes are only needed on the IPA server as the SSSD on the IPA server is the component that does all the user and group lookups.

The steps to test this scenario are:

  • Configure an IPA server and set it in a trust relationship with an Active Directory domain.

  • In sssd.conf on the IPA server, add trusted domain section and redefine some of the supported search base options for this section (for example ldap_user_search_base) to point to only a specific OU:

    [domain/ipadomain.test/addomain.test]
    ldap_user_search_base = ou=finance,dc=addomain,dc=test
    
  • Restart SSSD on the server

  • Make sure that only users from within the configured search domain are resolvable

  • Please note that when restricting the group search base, it is good idea to disable the TokenGroups support, otherwise SSSD will still resolve all groups the user is a member of as the TokenGroups attribute contains a flat list of SIDs. See also this blog post for more details

  • Make sure that also on a IPA client, only the users from within the configured search base are resolvable

Debugging

The best way to debug the search base restrictions is to watch the SSSD logs. The sdap_get_generic_* functions would log the filter and the search base used with the search. Please remember to expire the SSSD caches using sss_cache -E before issuing the lookup.

Test the AD site and AD server pinning

Similar to the previous test, the configuration differs for direct AD clients and for IPA-AD trusts. For direct AD clients, the configuration file on all clients must be modified. For IPA-AD trusts, only the configuration file on the IPA masters must be changed. However, note that while user and group resolution in IPA-AD trust scenario flows through the IPA masters, authentication is performed directly against the AD DCs. Currently there is no way, except modifying krb5.conf on the IPA clients to pin IPA clients to a particular AD DC server for authentication. This work is tracked in a separate ticket

For direct AD integration, restricting the AD DCs or the sites would also work for authentication, as the SSSD would write the address to the AD DC to contact into a libkrb5 kdcinfo file (see man sssd_krb5_locator_plugin).

The steps to test this use-case are:

  • Configure the trusted domain section in sssd.conf as follows:

    [domain/parentdomain.test/trusteddomain.test]
    ad_server = dc1.trusteddomain.test
    
  • Restart SSSD

  • Resolve a user or authenticate as a user

  • The SSSD debug logs can be inspected to show what AD DCs were resolved and contacted

  • To make sure SSSD connects to the right AD DC, you can firewall off other DCs or modify the DNS SRV records for example

Debugging

SSSD logs which serves it contacts when a first request that causes the connection to be established happens. Please note that the request might be triggered by internal SSSD scheduling, especially in case of enumeration or sudo rule download. To trigger reconnection, you can send the SIGUSR1 signal to SSSD to bring it offline, then SIGUSR2 again to force SSSD to go online. Then issue a lookup with getent or id.

To debug which DC does SSSD connect to during authentication, it is a good idea to set the highest debug_level in the domain section (currently the debug_level is shared across the joined domain and the trusted domains) so that the krb5_child.log and ldap_child.log files contains also the KRB5_TRACE-level messages.

Tools such as netstat or tcpdump could also be used to observe the traffic.

Test short names for trusted domains

Using short names for trusted domains also differs between clients joined directly to AD and clients in an IPA domain with a trust towards an AD domain.

For the directly joined clients, simply disable the qualified names default in the subdomains’ section:

[domain/win.trust.test]
id_provider = ad
ldap_id_mapping = True
use_fully_qualified_names = false

[domain/win.trust.test/child.win.trust.test]
use_fully_qualified_names = false

If short names are set for a trusted domain, it is a good idea to consider enabling the cache_first option to avoid extra LDAP searches across all domains in case a shortname in a domain defined later in the domain list is requested.

For IPA-AD trusts, the configuration described above might also work, but since it has to be set on all clients, it is more convenient to set the domain resolution order centrally on one of the IPA servers. The SSSD part of that feature will be described in a separate design document; the IPA part also has its own design document.

Debugging

Logs from both the nss and domain sections are useful here. The logs from the nss service would show, through the cache_req functions, which domain’s cache was consulted. In case of a cache miss or cache expiration, the domain logs would show the LDAP searches and whether the user was found and stored to cache.

Authors

  • Michal Židek <<mzidek@redhat.com>>