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Sudo Plugin Wire Protocol

Sudo v1.8 supports a plugin API that can be used to extend features of SUDO. These pluggable modules can be of two types

  1. Policy Plugin
  2. I/O log Plugin

Policy plugin can determine whether the user is allowed run the specified command as specified user. Only one policy plugin may be loaded at a time. Where as the I/O log plugin logs the session to local file including the tty input/output, stdin, stdout, stderr etc. Through this policy plugin the user can different security policies that can be plugged into action. In the forwarder plugin we are not using I/O plugin to log data.

Policy Plugin


int (*open)(unsigned int version, sudo_conv_t conversation,
                 sudo_printf_t plugin_printf, char * const settings[],
                 char * const user_info[], char * const user_env[]);

This function opens the connection between plugin and SUDO


@param[in] version - The major and minor version number of the plugin API

@param[in] conversation - A pointer to the conversation function that can be used by the plugin to interact with the user (see below). Returns 0 on success and -1 on failure.

@param[in] plugin_printf - A pointer to a printf-style function that may be used to display informational or error messages

@param[in] user_info - A vector of user-supplied sudo settings in the form of “name=value” strings. The vector is terminated by a NULL pointer.

@param[in] user_env - A vector of information about the user running the command in the form of “name=value” strings. The vector is terminated by a NULL pointer.


@return 1 success

@return 0 failure

@return -1 general error

@return -2 usage error,

If an error occurs, the plugin may optionally call the conversation or plugin_printf function with SUDO_CONF_ERROR_MSG to present additional error information to the user.


void (*close)(int exit_status, int error);

The close function is called when the command being run by sudo finishes.


@param[in] exit_status - The command’s exit status, as returned by the wait system call. The value of exit_status is undefined if error is non-zero.

@param[out] error - If the command could not be executed, this is set to the value of errno set by the execve system call. If the command was successfully executed, the value of error is 0.


int (*check_policy)(int argc, char * const argv[]
                     char *env_add[], char **command_info[],
                     char **argv_out[], char **user_env_out[]);

The check_policy function is called by sudo to determine whether the user is allowed to run the specified commands.


@param[in] argc - The number of elements in argv, not counting the final NULL pointer.

@param[in] argv - The argument vector describing the command the user wishes to run, in the same form as what would be passed to the execve() system call which is terminated by a NULL pointer.

@param[in] env_add - Additional environment variables specified by the user on the command line in the form of a NULL-terminated vector of “name=value” strings.

@param[in] command_info - Information about the command being run in the form of “name=value” strings.

@param[out] argv_out - The NULL-terminated argument vector to pass to the execve() system call when executing the command.

@param[in] user_env_out - The NULL-terminated environment vector to use when executing the command.


@return 1 - Command is allowed

@return -1 - general error

@return -2 - usage error

If an error occurs, the plugin may optionally call the conversation or plugin_printf function with SUDO_CONF_ERROR_MSG to present additional error information to the user.


int (*validate)(void);

The validate function is called when sudo is run with the -v flag. For policy plugins such as sudoers that cache authentication credentials, this function will validate and cache the credentials. i.e, sudo will update the user’s cached credentials, authenticating the user’s password if necessary. The default sudoers plugin caches the user credential for a timeout of 5 minutes. The invocation of validate function through ‘sudo -v’ flag extends the timeout of the user credentials after authentication if necessary.

No Input


@return 1 - success

@return 0 - failure

@return -1 - error

On error, the plugin may optionally call the conversation or plugin_printf function with SUDO_CONF_ERROR_MSG to present additional error information to the user.


void (*invalidate)(int remove);

The invalidate function is called when sudo is called with the -k or -K flag. This function will invalidate the credentials. i.e, the user credentials will be marked as invalid so that on the nest invocation of sudo user will be forcefully prompted undergo the authentication procedures. The invalidate function should be NULL if the plugin does not support credential caching.


@param[in] remove - If the remove flag is set, the plugin may remove the credentials instead of simply invalidating them.

Conversation API & Printf-style functions

typedef int (*sudo_conv_t)(int num_msgs,
             const struct sudo_conv_message msgs[],
             struct sudo_conv_reply replies[]);

typedef int (*sudo_printf_t)(int msg_type, const char *fmt, ...);

If the plugin needs to interact with the user or display informational or error messages, it may do so via the conversation function. The caller must include a trailing newline in msg if one is to be printed. The messages are passed in the the msg[] array of sudo_conv_messages and the replies are received in the array sudo_conv_reply structures.

The format of sudo_conv_messages and sudo_conv_reply are

struct sudo_conv_message {
    int msg_type;
    int timeout;
    const char *msg;

struct sudo_conv_reply {
    char *reply;

A printf-style function is also available that can be used to display informational or error messages to the user, which is usually more convenient for simple messages where no use input is required.

The msg_type can be any one of these

SUDO_CONV_PROMPT_ECHO_OFF    /* do not echo user input */
SUDO_CONV_PROMPT_ECHO_ON     /* echo user input */
SUDO_CONV_ERROR_MSG          /* error message */
SUDO_CONV_INFO_MSG           /* informational message */
SUDO_CONV_PROMPT_MASK        /* mask user input */
SUDO_CONV_PROMPT_ECHO_OK     /* flag: allow echo if no tty */

The formatted string given in the printf-style function is printed to the screen.


This is the structure of message packet that is sent from plugin to SSSD responder for getting the authentication result.

The structure is as shown below.

Each string message is grouped into a container of format: :

message_type +(uint32_t) message_size + message_string

and each integer messages are grouped into container as: :

message_type+ sizeof( uint32_t ) + (uint32_t)integer_value

So that string message occupies a space of { 2*(sizeof uint32_t)+sizeof string } and integer type takes a space of { 3*(sizeof uint32_t) }

message_type : is defined at “sss_sudo_cli.h” as enum sudo_item_type

The message format will be: :

start_header + message_container1 + message_container2 + ........ + message_containerN + stop_header.

where: :


The messages are: :

MESSAGE                            MESSAGE TYPE                     DESCRIPTION

uid                                SSS_SUDO_ITEM_UID                UID of the user

Current directory                  SSS_SUDO_ITEM_CWD                Current working directory of the user

tty                                SSS_SUDO_ITEM_TTY                tty used by the user

Run as user                        SSS_SUDO_ITEM_RUSER              User name to run the command as

run as group                       SSS_SUDO_ITEM_RGROUP             group name to run the command as

prompt to be used                  SSS_SUDO_ITEM_PROMPT             Prompt to be used when credentials are requested

network address                    SSS_SUDO_ITEM_NETADDR            Network address of user

Use sudo edit                      SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_SUDOEDIT       Use sudo edit instead of sudo

set HOME to target user's home     SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_SETHOME        set HOME env variable to target user's home

preserve environment               SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_PRESERV_ENV    Preserve the environment to be used

implied shell support              SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_IMPLIED_SHELL  use sudo without any command

Use login shell                    SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_LOGIN_SHELL    indicates that user want to run a login shell

Run a shell                        SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_RUN_SHELL      Want to run a shell instead of command

preserve groups                    SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_PRE_GROUPS     Preserve group information

ignore cached results              SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_IGNORE_TICKET  Ignore the cached credentials

be noninteractive                  SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USE_NON_INTERACTIVE die when user input is needed

debug level                        SSS_SUDO_ITEM_DEBUG_LEVEL        debug level

command                            SSS_SUDO_ITEM_COMMAND            command with its arguments to be executed

user's environment variables       SSS_SUDO_ITEM_USER_ENV           null terminated list of environment variables

client pid                         SSS_SUDO_ITEM_CLI_PID            client's pid